Breadcrumbs

Madhhab Of Sahaba And Tabi'un (Ridwanullahi Alaihim) [Part 1]


[Question]:
"Wahhabis and those who read their books say. 'The Madhhabs appeared in the second century of the Hegira. To which Madhhab did the Sahaba and the Tabi'un belong?' "

Answer:
An 'imam al-madhhab' was a great scholar who collected religious knowledge that he acquired from the Sahaba-t-al-kiram [1] and which was clearly stated in Qur'an alkarim and Hadith ash-sharif [2], and committed it to books. As for the teachings that were not declared clearly, he would examine them by comparing them to the ones declared clearly. "There were also many other imams each having his own Madhhab [3] during the time of the well-known four imams. But those who followed them decreased in number over the centuries, and, as a result, none are left today." Each Sahabi was a mujtahid [4], a profound 'alim, and an imam al-madhhab. Each had his own Madhhab and was more exalted and learned than the four a'immat al-madhahib. Their Madhhabs could have been more correct and superior. Yet, because they did not write books, their Madhhabs were forgotten. It soon became no longer possible to follow any Madhhab other than the four. Saying, "To which Madhhab did the Sahaba belong?" is like saying, "To which squadron does the colonel belong?" or, "To which class of the school does the physics master belong?"]

It is written in many books that four hundred years after the Hegira there were no longer any scholars capable of performing mutlaq (absolute) ijtihad. The hadith ash-sharif on the 318th page of Al-hadiqa states that false, heretical men of religious post will increase in number. For this reason, every Sunni Muslim today has to follow (taqlid) one of the known four Madhhabs. That is, he has to read and adopt the 'ilm al-hal books of one of these four Madhhabs and have iman and do all his actions in accordance with these books. Thus, he will become a member of one of these Madhhabs. A person who does not follow one of them cannot be a Sunni but a lamadhhabi person, who either belongs to one of the seventytwo heretical groups or has become a non-Muslim.

[1] Sahaba: if a Muslim has seen the Prophet, or talked to him, at least once when the Prophet was alive, he is called Sahabi. Plural form of Sahabi is Sahaba or As'hab. The word Sahaba-i kiram includes all those great people each of whom has seen the Prophet at least once. The lowest of the Sahaba is much higher than the highest of other Muslims. If a person has not seen the Prophet but has seen or talked to one of the Sahaba at least once, he is called Tabi'. Its plural form is Tabi'in. In other words, the Tabi'in are the successors of the Sahaba. If a person has not seen any of the Sahaba but has seen at least one of the Tabi'in, he is called Taba'i Tabi'in. The Sahaba, the Tabi'in and the Taba'i tabi'in altogether are called the Salaf-i salihin (the early savants).
[2] hadith (sharif): i) a saying of the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam).; al-Hadith ash-sharif: all the hadiths as a whole; ii) 'ilm al-hadith; iii) Books of the hadith ash-sharif. iv) Al-hadith al-qudsi, as-sahih, al-hasan: kinds of hadiths (for which, see Endless Bliss, II).
[3] madhhab: all of what a profound 'alim of (especially) Fiqh (usually one of the four-Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanbali) or iman (one of the two, namely Ash-ari, Maturidi) communicated.
[4] mujtahid: great 'alim capable of employing ijtihad; mujtahid imam, mujtahid mufti.