Seeing The New Crescent (Part 2)

Scholars of the four Madhhabs [1] unanimously said that fasting starts at the beginning of whiteness at one point of the horizon, which is called fajr-i sadiq. It is said in the book Multaqa, "Fasting is not to eat, drink or have sexual intercourse from dawn to sunset. It is fard [2] to intend with the heart for the fast of Ramadan within the period from the previous day's sunset until the time of dahwa-i kubra on the day when you will fast. So is the time of niyya (intention) for the fast which is vowed for a certain day and for the supererogatory fast. It is necessary to intend for each individual day. When intending to fast in Ramadan, it is permissible also to intend to fast only or for the supererogatory fast without mentioning the name Ramadan. The time of dahwa-i-kubra is the middle of the duration of the fast, that is, of the Islamic daytime; hence, it is before noon. The interval between these two times is equal to half the time interval between the time of sunrise and the time of fajr, or imsak [3], that is, as many minutes as half the time called Hissa-i-fajr. [Ba'sed on the time called Adhani (or Azani), Dahwa-i-kubra is Fajr+(24-Fajr)÷2=Fajr+12-Fajr÷2=12+Fajr÷2. In other words, half the Fajr time from 12 a.m. is Dahwa-i-kubra]. As one makes niyya before the Fajr, that is, before the time of Imsak, one says, "I make niyya (intend) to fast tomorrow." And if one makes niyya after the Imsak, one says, "I make niyya to fast today." Since fasting during Ramadan-i-sharif is fard for every Muslim, it is fard for those who cannot fast then to make qada of it, (that is, to fast later). The fast of qada or kaffarat [4] and the fast which is not vowed for a certain day cannot be intended for after dawn.

[1] madhhab: all of what a profound 'alim of (especially) Fiqh (usually one of the four-Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanbali) or iman (one of the two, namely Ash-ari, Maturidi) communicated.
[2] fard: an act or thing that is commanded by Allahu ta'ala in the Qur'an al-karim. Fard (or fard) means (any behaviour or thought or belief which is) obligatory. Islam's open commandments are called fard (pl. faraid).
[3] imsak the time when the day's fast begins during month of Ramadan
[4] kaffara: specified penalty that should be paid along with qada'.