What Does Not Break The Fast

Ibni Abidin says, "If an ill person is seriously worried that his illness may become worse, or that his recovering may be slowed or he may have a severe pain, or if a hospital attendant fears that he himself may become ill (in case he fasts) and (as a result) his patients may all die, these people do not fast and make qada [1] later. If a healthy person strongly believes that he would become ill, or a public servant who performs manual labor in adverse conditions, i.e. cleaning the river, worries about becoming seriously ill due to the effect of very cold or hot weather, or if a woman [who works to support herself and who lives alone and gets no financial support from anywhere] strongly believes that she would become ill if she fasted while performing strenuous physical labor, such as a laundry washer or housemaid, it is permissible not to fast or break the fast intended and make qada for it. A strong belief means to notice the symptoms of death based on one's own personal experience or the information given by a Muslim expert physician (Tabib-i Muslim-i haziq). Expert (haziq) means specialist in a certain field of illness. It is permissible to be examined and treated by a physician who is known as a kafir (disbeliever) or fasiq (one who commits sins), but worships cannot be given up with their advice. If one breaks one's fast by relying upon their advice, then kaffarat [2] will be necessary. The author says under the topic of Ikrah (duress) that to lose an organ or limb, or to lose one's entire property, or to suffer a violent or torturous imprisonment or beating may result in death." It is written in the book Imad-ul Islam "If one cannot find a Muslim expert physician and has no experience oneself one should first swallow a small piece of paper or swallow a grain of rice without any water, then eat some food, and then take the medicine. This procedure will free one from kaffarat." In the book Bahrurraiq is written, "Anyone who is bitten by a venomous animal, breaks the fast in order to take an antidote and after Ramadan makes qada." Ibni Abidin says at the end of his discourse on the acts

[1] qada': i) decree of a qadi (Muslim judge); ii) performance of an 'ibada after its due time.
[2] kaffara: specified penalty that should be paid along with qada'.
[3] haram: an action, word or thought prohibited by Allahu ta'ala.
that annul fast, "Anyone who needs a means of subsistence and believes that he will possibly become ill if he works, breaks the fast. If he is an employee on a contractual basis and his employer does not grant him a leave of absence during the month of Ramadan, and if he and his family have the means of subsistence, he does not break the fast. For, begging is haram [3] for such a person. If he does not own his and his family's means of subsistence, it is necessary to find an easier job. If he cannot find an easier job, it is permissible to break the fast and continue to work. Likewise, if the Ramadan fasting harms someone who mows the crop, i.e. if he will not be able to mow the crop and the crop will be destroyed or stolen because of fasting, [or it is certain that the building will be destroyed by rain if the construction cannot be finished on time], if it is impossible to find someone to work for pay, it is permissible to break the fast and do the work. After finishing the work he fasts and makes qada, after Ramadan, of the days (he did not fast). It will not be a sin. Anyone who will certainly become ill or die from thirst (in case he goes on fasting) may break the fast, and makes qada. In this case he does not make kaffarat.