What Breaks The Fast (Part 2)

   If one breaks it by mistake, for example, if some water escapes down one's throat while making ablution, if one is forced to break it, if one administers an enema, if one sniffs up fluid medicine, lotion, smoke, [the smoke of a cigarette smoked by someone else], or the smoke of aloes wood fumigated with amber, into one's nose or drops medicine into one's ear, if the medicine put on the boil on one's skin penetrates in, [if one injects medicine by syringe], if one swallows something not medicinal or nutritious, such as a piece of paper, stone or metal, if one vomits a mouthful by forcing oneself to, if one with a bleeding tooth swallows only the blood or the blood which is fifty per cent mixed with saliva, if one eats not knowing that the dawn has broken or breaks the fast thinking that the sun has set, if one goes on eating thinking that one's fast is broken because one has forgotten one's fast and begun eating, if they pour water into one's mouth or have sexual intercourse with one while one is asleep, if one fasts without intending or does not intend before dawn in Ramadan and then gives up the fast after dahwa though one intended after the dawn; the fast is broken in any of these cases and it is necessary to make only a day-for-day qada [1] after the 'Iyd. Yet kaffarat [2] is not necessary. If rain or snow goes down one's throat it breaks both the fast and the salat. It is necessary to make qada. If one becomes junub [3] by embracing, hugging and kissing, one's fast breaks and qada becomes necessary. But it does not break if one does not become junub. It is said by the authors (rahmatullahi 'alaihim ajma'in) of the books Hindiyya, Bahr and Durr-ul-Mukhtar that only qada is necessary when one becomes junub by manual masturbation. If one swallows something that has remained between one's teeth from the previous night, it breaks the fast if it is bigger than a chick-pea and qada becomes necessary. But it does not break the fast if it is smaller than a chick-pea. If a person who has forgotten his fast and eaten something eats or drinks something again after remembering that he is fasting though he knows that forgetting and eating will not break his fast, his fast breaks and it becomes necessary to make both qada and kaffarat.

[1] qada': i) decree of a qadi (Muslim judge); ii) performance of an 'ibada after its due time.
[2] kaffara: specified penalty that should be paid along with qada'.
[3] Junub: i) a person who needs a ghusl ablution. What causes a person to become junub is prescribed by Islam. İi) state of a Muslim needing ablution of his whole body (needing a ghusl).