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Kinds Of Najasat

THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF NAJASAT [1] :

1 - Qaba (ghaliz)najasat: All things that necessitate an ablution or ghusl [2] when they issue from the human body, flayed but not tanned skin, flesh, excrement and urine of those animals whose flesh cannot be eaten [except a bat] and of their young; excrement, urine and mouthful vomited matter of a sucking baby; blood of man and of all animals; wine, carrion, pork, excrement of domestic fowls, excrement of pack animals and sheep and goats are ghaliz, that is, qaba. Blood is qaba najasat in all the four Madhhabs [3].

A cat's urine, only on one's clothes; a martyr's blood, as long as it remains on him; blood that exists in and does not flow out of edible meat, livers, hearts and spleens; blood of fish; excrement and blood of lice, fleas and bed-bugs are all clean. In other words, it is said (by scholars) that salat can be performed even when one is smeared with a great deal of the above. All intoxicant drinks, like wine, are qaba najasat. The words of those who say that they are khafif (light) najasat are daif (weak).

2 - Khafif najasat: When one-fourth of a limb or a fourth of one's clothes is smeared with khafif najasat, it does not negatively affect the salat. The urine of edible quadruped animals and the excrement of those birds whose flesh is not edible are khafif. The excrement of such edible fowls as pigeons and sparrows is clean. Even if a small amount of a mouse's excrement or its urine falls into water or oil, although it has been forgiven, it will be better to clean it. If a small quantity of it gets mixed with wheat and becomes flour, it has been forgiven. With respect to cleaning and making najs [4] when dropped into a liquid, there is no difference between qaba najasat and khafif najasat.

Drops of urine and blood splashing on one's clothes equalling the point of a pin, drops of mud splashing on one in the streets, steams consisting of najasat, gases coming on one after they have touched some najasat, wind or steam that is formed in stables and baths, and drops that are formed on walls are all excusable when they touch one's clothes or wet skin. Because it is difficult to avoid them, they have been deemed darurat (unavoidability) . But liquid obtained from distilled najasat is najs. For there is no inevitability in using it. For this reason, raki and spirit (alcohol) are qaba najasat and, like wine, it is haram [5] to drink them.

GLOSSARY
[1] najasat: i) any kind of dirt, filth, that prevents one from performing namaz. ii) religiously impure thing.
[2] ghusl: ablution of the whole body as defined in fiqh.
[3] madhhab: all of what a profound 'alim of (especially) Fiqh (usually one of the four-Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanbali) or iman (one of the two, namely Ash-ari, Maturidi) communicated.
[4] najs: religiously impure thing.
[5] haram: an action, word or thought prohibited by Allahu ta'ala.