Iman And Islam (Part 2)


A second evidence showing that the entire universe and all creatures are hadith [1] is the fact that creatures are transforming and changing into one another all the time; in fact, anything qadim (without a beginning) should never change. Allahu ta'ala's Dhat (Person, Essence) and Attributes are qadim and never change. The changes in creatures cannot be coming from the eternal past. They should have a beginning and come into existence from elements or substances, which must have been created out of nonexistence.

Another evidence for the fact that the universe is mumkin, that is, it may come into being out of nonexistence, is that creatures, as we see, are hadith; that is, they come into existence out of nothing.

There are two beings: the mumkin and the Wajib [2].If only the mumkin existed, or if Wajib al-wujud did not exist, nothing would exist. For this reason, the mumkin could not come into existence or go on being by itself. If some power had not affected it, it would have always remained in nonexistence and could not have come into existence. Since a mumkin could not create itself; it could not, naturally, create other mumkins, either. That which has created the mumkin has to be Wajib al-wujud. The existence of the 'alam shows that a creator who created it out of nothing exists. So, the Unique Creator of all that are mumkin, the creatures, is the only Wajib al-wujud without being hadith or mumkin, but always existent and qadim (eternal). 'Wajib al-wujud' means that its existence is not from something else but from itself, that is, it is always self-existent and is not created by someone else. If this were not so, then it would have to be a creature (mumkin and hadith) created by someone else. And this is contrary to what is deduced above. Persian 'Khuda' (used as a name for Allah) means 'always self-existent, eternal.

[1] hadith (sharif): i) a saying of the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam).; al-Hadith ash-sharif: all the hadiths as a whole; ii) 'ilm al-hadith; iii) Books of the hadith ash-sharif. iv) Al-hadith al-qudsi, as-sahih, al-hasan: kinds of hadiths (for which, see Endless Bliss, II).
[2] wajib: (act, thing) never omitted by the Prophet, so almost as compulsory as fard and not to be omitted. Wajib al-wujud: Being whose existence is indispensable and nonexistence is impossible.