Iman And Islam 1


The 'ulama' [1] of Islam said that every discreet male or female Muslim, who has reached the age of puberty, ought to know and believe in the as-Sifat adh-Dhatiyya [2] and as-Sifat ath- Thubutiyya [3] of Allahu ta'ala correctly. It is this which is primarily obligatory (fard) for everybody. Not to know is not an excuse but a sin. Khalid ibn Ahmad al-Baghdadi write this book not to make a show of superiority and knowledge to others or to become famous, but to leave a reminder, a service behind. May Allahu ta'ala help humble Khalid with His Power and through His Prophet's blessed soul! Amin.

Everything other than Allahu ta'ala is called the ma-siwa or 'alam (the creation, the universe), which is called "nature" now. All creatures were nonexistent. Allahu ta'ala is the One who has created them all. They all are mumkin (that may come into existence out of nonexistence) and hadith (that came into being out of nothing); that is, they may come into existence while they are nonexistent, and they came into existence while they had been nonexistent. The hadith-i-sharif [4], 'Allahu ta'ala was existent, anything else did not exist,' shows that this is true.

A second evidence showing that the entire universe and all creatures are hadith is the fact that creatures are transforming and changing into one another all the time; in fact, anything qadim (without a beginning) should never change. Allahu ta'ala's Dhat (Person, Essence) and Attributes are qadim (without beginning) and never change. The changes in creatures cannot be coming from the eternal past. They should have a beginning and come into existence from elements or substances, which must have been created out of nonexistence.

Another evidence for the fact that the universe is mumkin, that is, it may come into being out of nonexistence, is that creatures, as we see, are hadith; that is, they come into existence out of nothing.

There are two beings: the mumkin and the Wajib. If only the mumkin existed, or if Wajib al-wujud did not exist, nothing would exist. For this reason, the mumkin could not come into existence or go on being by itself. If some power had not affected it, it would have always remained in nonexistence and could not have come into existence. Since a mumkin could not create itself; it could not, naturally, create other mumkins, either. That which has created the mumkin has to be Wajib al-wujud. The existence of the 'alam shows that a creator who created it out of nothing exists. So, the Unique Creator of all that are mumkin, the creatures, is the only Wajib al-wujud without being hadith or mumkin, but always existent and qadim (eternal). 'Wajib al-wujud' means that its existence is not from something else but from itself, that is, it is always self-existent and is not created by someone else. If this were not so, then it would have to be a creature (mumkin and hadith) created by someone else. And this is contrary to what is deduced above. Persian 'Khuda' (used as a name for Allah) means 'always self-existent, eternal.'

[1] 'ulama': pl. of 'alim; 'ulama' ar-rasihin, those learned in both zahiri and batini sciences.
[2] As-Sifat adh-Dhatiyya As-Sifât adh-Dhâtiyya of Allâhu ta'âlâ are six: al-Wujûd, existence; al- Qidam, being without beginning, and eternal in the past; al-Baqâ', being without end, and eternal in the future; al-Wahdâniyya, having no partner or match; al-Mukhâlafatu li-l-hawâdith, being dissimilar to every creature in every respect; al-Qiyâmu bi nafsihi, self-existence or being unneedy of anything for His existence. No creature has any of these six attributes, nor any relation with them. They belong to Allâhu ta'âlâ exclusively. Some 'ulamâ' said that al-Mukhâlafatu li 'l-hawâdith and al-Wahdâniyya were the same and that as-Sifât adh-Dhâtiyya are five.
[3] As-Sifat ath-Thubutiyya As-Sifât adh-Dhâtiyya of Allâhu ta'âlâ are eight:Hayât (Life), 'Ilm (Omniscience), Sam' (Hearing), Basar (Seeing), Qudra (Omnipotence), Kalâm (Speech, Word), Irâda (Will) and Takwîn (Creativeness).
[4] hadith (sharif): i) a saying of the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam).; al-Hadith ash-sharif: all the hadiths as a whole; ii) 'ilm al-hadith; iii) Books of the hadith ash-sharif. iv) Al-hadith al-qudsi, as-sahih, al-hasan: kinds of hadiths (for which, see Endless Bliss, II).