Kinds Of Martyrs

There are three kinds of martyrs.

1- A Muslim who is not junub, who is not in her monthly period, who is discreet and has reached the age of puberty is killed unjustly by torture or by being hit with a sharp weapon, or if he is killed with any weapon by the enemy while making jihâd against the enemies of religion in a war for Allah's sake or by rebels, highwaymen, anarchists or (at night) by a thief during the time of peace –if he dies immediately–, or if he is found dead with such signs of murder as a wound or blood on him at a place where there has been a conflict against the abovesaid (outlaws), where he must have been in order to defend the lives and property of Muslims and zimmîs, or if he is found dead in town and his murderer is known and qisâs (taliation) becomes necessary, he is called a martyr of the world and the Hereafter or a perfect martyr. The perfect martyr is not washed in the world. Nor is he shrouded. His clothes exceeding the amount of material used for a shroud are taken off, and he is buried with his underwear. The salât of janâza for him is performed in Hanafî Madhhab. But it is not performed in Shâfi'î Madhhab. He attains the thawâb for matrydom in the Hereafter.

2- A person who does not intend to make jihâd for Allah's sake and who fights for wordly advantages becomes only a martyr of the world. Martyrs of this sort are not washed or shrouded. Yet they cannot attain the thawâb of martyrdom in the Hereafter.

3- If he dies during the preparatory drills for jihâd, or if a person killed with oppression or wounded in jihâd or while fighting against anarchists, rebels, highwaymen or (at night) thieves does not die immediately but stays alive and conscious until the duration of one salât time is over or is taken to somewhere else and dies there, or if he is junub or (she is) in her monthly regulation, he (or she) becomes only a martyr of the Hereafter. He (or she) is washed and shrouded in the world. Those who are killed by such chastisements as Hadd, Ta'zîr, qisâs [or who are executed by being shot or hanged], and those who are killed by a beast are washed.

Those who die as a result of drowning, burning, of destitution, or from being crushed under a collapsing wall or other building, those who die of diarrhoea, of plague [or another hectic disease], during lochia, of an epileptic fit, on a Friday night, [which is the night between Thursday and Friday], or on a Friday, or while learning, teaching or propagating religious knowledge, those who fall in love and die in their efforts to suppress their love and protect their chastity, those who die during unjust imprisonment, those who die while serving as a muadhdhin for Allah's sake, while trading as commanded by the Sharî'a or while working and earning halâl so that their household will learn religious knowledge and worship, those who say the prayer, "Allâhumma bârik lî fi-l-mawt wa fî-mâ ba'd al-mawt," twenty-five times every day, those who perform the salât of Duhâ, those who fast three days each month, those who do not neglect their salât of witr while travelling, those who say the prayer, "Lâ ilâha illâ anta subhânaka innî kuntu min-az-zâlîmîn," forty times on their deathbed, those who read the Sûra Yasîn every night, those who go to bed with ablution and then die, those who always make mudârâ, [which means to dissimulate, to give away what is worldly in order to protect one's faith], those who bring groceries and sell them cheaply, those who make ghusl in cold weather and become ill and die, those who say the prayer "A'ûdhu billâh-is-samî'il'alîmi min-ash-shaytân-ir-rajîm," three times and the last part of the sûrat-al-Hashr every morning and every evening; all these people become martyrs of the Hereafter.