Perfidy (Hiyanat)


The twenty-second malady of the heart is "hiyanat". Committing "hiyanat" causes anger (ghadab). "Hiyanat" also is forbidden (haram) and it is a sign of hypocrisy. The opposite of "hiyanat" is being trustworthy (amanat). The meaning of "hiyanat" is as follows: A person who portrays himself to others as trustworthy and then does something which belies this impression. A Believer (Mu'min) is a person to whom anybody would entrust their life or property. Amanat (trustworthiness) and hiyanat (perfidy) apply not only to property but also to spoken (or written) words. Rasulullah 'sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam' states in a hadith-i-sharif[1] : "A person who is consulted is trustworthy." As a matter of fact, others trust this person that he will tell them the truth and will not tell anyone else about the question he has been asked. It is necessary (wajib) for him to tell the truth. A person may place his property with another whom he trusts. Similarly, one may consult with another whom he is sure will tell him the truth. The 159th ayat [2] in Sura [3] "al-I 'Imran" of the Qur'an al-karim purports: "Consult with others beforehand the things you are planning to do." Consulting with others is like a fortress which protects one from regret. The person whom one wants to consult should know the states of human beings of his time as well as the states and conditions of the country and the time. This is called knowledge of politics and administration ('ilm al-siyasat). Furthermore, he should be a far sighted and wise person as well as a healthy one. It is sinful for him to say something which he does not know or to say something contrary to his knowledge. If he said these things by mistake, it would not be a sin for him. If one consults with a person who does not possess the above-mentioned attributes and qualifications, both parties will be committing a sin. Those who give religious judgment (fatwa) with respect to worldly or religious matters although they do not fulfill the aforesaid qualifications, will be cursed by angels. Another kind of hiyanat (perfidy) is to order someone to do something which you know will be harmful.

[It is written in the famous religious book Hadiqa that Abdullah ibn al-Mas'ud 'radiy-Allahu ta'ala 'anh' said, "The first thing you will lose from your religion will be being trustworthy 'amanat'. The last thing you will lose will be the 'salat' prayer. There will be some people who will be praying 'salats' while indeed they will not even have any faith." Rasulullah 'sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sal-lam' states in a hadith-i-sharif: "Anyone who murders his friend is not one of my 'Ummat' (followers). This is true even if the person murdered is a disbeliever."]

[1] hadith (sharif): i) a saying of the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam).; al-Hadith ash-sharif: all the hadiths as a whole; ii) 'ilm al-hadith; iii) Books of the hadith ash-sharif. iv) Al-hadith al-qudsi, as-sahih, al-hasan: kinds of hadiths (for which, see Endless Bliss, II).
[2] ayat: A verse of al-Qur'an al-karim; al-ayat al-karima.
[3] suura(t): a Qur'anic chapter [a chapter of the Qur'an].