Sadaqa Fitr (Part 1)


It is written in Durr-ul-mukhtar and Radd-ul-muhtar, "If a person gives the fitra for someone else out of his own property, it becomes permissible if the latter has commanded it in advance. If he has not given it with the latter's command, it does not become permissible even if he consents afterwards. If he has given it out of the latter's property, it becomes permissible when the latter gives the consent (afterwards). A man can give the fitras of the people he is supporting in his home without their advice. If one commands one's wife [or someone else] to give one's fitra, too, and if she (or he) mixes her (or his) wheat with one's wheat without one's permission and gives the mixture to the poor, she (or he) will have given only her (or his) fitra. For, according to Imam-i-a'zam she (or he) will have used the wheat by mixing the two amounts of wheat with each other, and thus the wheat will become her (or his) property. But it does not become her (or his) property according to the two imams [1]. If she (or he) has mixed them with one's permission, one's fitra also will have been given according to Imam-i-a'zam, too (rahmatullahi ta'ala 'alaihim ajma'in). If the act were done the other way, the wife's fitra would have been given, too. For it is permissible for the husband to give the wife's fitra as a kindness out of his own property without her permission. He can either mix the fitras of his wife and other household and give them without their permission, or weigh the wheat or gold equal to their total at once and give it to one or more poor people. But it is circumspect to prepare them separately and then mix them or give them separately." If one loses one's property after having had the amount of nisab, that is, after fitra and Qurban having become wajib [2] and hajj (pilgrimage) having become fard [3], one is not absolved from them. But zakat and 'ushr are forgiven since the property has left one's possession. But these are not forgiven, either, if one purposely disposes of it.

[1] imam: i) profound 'alim; founder of a madhhab; ii) leader in congregational salat; iii) caliph.
[2] wajib: (act, thing) never omitted by the Prophet, so almost as compulsory as fard and not to be omitted. Wajib al-wujud: Being whose existence is indispensable and nonexistence is impossible.
[3] fard: an act or thing that is commanded by Allahu ta'ala in the Qur'an al-karim. Fard (or fard) means (any behaviour or thought or belief which is) obligatory. Islam's open commandments are called fard (pl. faraid).