The Fundamentals Of Islam (Part 3)


The second fundamental of Islam is "to perform the ritual prayer (namaz, salat) [five times a day in accordance with its conditions and fards] when the time for prayercomes." It is fard [1] for every Muslim to perform salat five times every day after each time of salat (daily prayer) starts and to know that he or she performs it in due time. Performing it before its time by adapting wrong calendars prepared by ignoramuses or non-madhhabite people is a grave sin and such a salat is not sahih (valid). Such calendars also cause one to perform the initial sunna salat [2] of early afternoon prayer and the fard salat of evening prayer in a makruh [3] time. The ritual prayer has to be performed paying attention to its fards, wajibs [4] and sunnas, submitting the heart to Allahu ta'ala and before the due time is over. In the Qur'an al-karim the ritual prayer is called 'salat'. Salat means man's praying, angel's doing istighfar (repentance), and Allahu ta'ala's having compassion and pitying. In Islam, salat means to do certain actions, to recite certain things as shown in 'ilm al-hal books. Salat is started with the words 'Allahu akbar,' called the 'takbir al-iftitah,' and said after raising the hands up to the ears till putting the hands under the navel (for men). It ends with the salam [5] by turning the head to the right and left shoulders at the end of the last sitting posture.

The third fundamental of Islam is "to give the zakat of one's property." The literal meaning of zakat is 'purity, to praise, and become good and beautiful.' In Islam, zakat means 'for a person who has property of zakat more than he needs and at a certain amount called nisab to separate a certain amount of his property and to give it to Muslims named in the Qur'an al-karim without reproaching them.' Zakat is given to seven kinds of people. There are four types of zakat in all of the four madhhabs [6]: the zakat of gold and silver, the zakat of commercial goods, the zakat of the stock animals [sheep, goats and cattle] that graze in the fields for more than half a year, and the zakat of all kinds of substances of necessity issuing from the earth. This fourth type of zakat, called 'ushr, is given as soon as the crop is harvested. The other three are given one year after they reach the amount of nisab.

[1] fard: an act or thing that is commanded by Allahu ta'ala in the Qur'an al-karim. Fard (or fard) means (any behaviour or thought or belief which is) obligatory. Islam's open commandments are called fard (pl. faraid).
[2] sunnat: i) act, thing that was, though not commanded by Allahu ta'ala, done and liked by the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam) as an 'ibada (there is thawab if done, but no sin if omitted, yet it causes sin if continually omitted and disbelief if disliked; the Sunna; i) (with fard) all the sunnas as a whole; ii) (with the Book or Qur'an al-karim) the Hadith ash-sharif; iii) (alone) fiqh, Islam.
[3] makruh: (act, thing) improper, disliked and abstained by the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam); makruh tahrima: prohibited with much stress.
[4] wajib: (act, thing) never omitted by the Prophet, so almost as compulsory as fard and not to be omitted. Wajib al-wujud: Being whose existence is indispensable and nonexistence is impossible.
[5] salam: i) greeting, peace, good wish; ii) the phrase "Assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah" said at the end of salat.
[6] madhhab: all of what a profound 'alim of (especially) Fiqh (usually one of the four-Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanbali) or iman (one of the two, namely Ash-ari, Maturidi) communicated.