What Does Prophethood Mean? (Part II)

Neither for us nor for them [philosophers], is it necessary for a Prophet to know all of the unknown. Scholars of Kalam [1] also report that Prophets will know the real myteries revealed to them by Allahu ta'ala, but they say that knowing mysteries is not a requirement for being a Prophet. Also, the abovesaid grounds which philosophers put forward with respect to knowing the unknown are not correct. They are incompatible with Islam's fundamentals. Furthermore, knowing the unknown on such grounds is quite a different subject. They are extraordinary wonders. There is no use in particularly dwelling on this.

Extraordinary events, such as, affecting objects and substances as one wishes; effecting the wind, earthquakes and fires when one likes or a ship's sinking; a man's dying or a tyrant's going to his doom upon one's wish are the human soul's influence on matter. In fact Allahu ta'ala, alone, is the One who affects matter. Allahu ta'ala creates this effect on whomever He wills, whenever He wills. For this reason, it cannot be said that extraordinary things or wonders are peculiar to Prophets only. This is admitted by philosophers, too. Therefore, how could this ever be the distinction between Prophets and others?

Philosophers' stating that an angel manifesting itself to Prophets and revealing Allahu ta'ala's wahi [2] as a condition for prophethood contradicts their own philosophy. Their saying such things are intended to mislead holders of iman [3], for, according to them, angels are immaterial and speechless. To produce sounds requires being material, they say. Sound is produced through waves of air. We can say that these conditions put forward by philosophers might come to mean that angels can show themselves and talk by taking material forms.

[1] kalam: (science of , the knowledge of) iman (belief). in Islam.
[2] wahi, wahy: the knowledge revealed to the Prophet from Allahu ta'ala (revelation).
[3] iman: faith, belief, beliefs of Islam; kalam, i'tiqad.